When there’s an idea to develop a replacement building, it’s very necessary to possess thought about the beginning and therefore the end of the building project. The flowchart below shows the development be due to the beginning to the top of a building project
There could also be variations as every project is exclusive and follows a special design and construction process. Generally, the essential steps involved during a building project are briefly explained.
- Preparation of Construction Site
- Foundation Construction
- Superstructure Construction
- Punch Lists
- Building Warranty Period
In the construction of a building, there are three key phases in the planning process:
- Developing the Building Plan
- Analyzing the Finance
- Selecting the development Team
Once the location where the building project is meant to construct is chosen, the expertise of engineers and designers is taken to develop the location and therefore the building plan. Sometimes, an appropriate site is chosen after the building layout is ready. The building plan is developed to support the owner’s requirements and budget. The finance and overall cost are estimated once the plan is completed. . The structural design details, the fabric estimates are prepared which help to derive project cost estimates. the value calculated include:
- The fabric cost
- The development cost
- The labor cost
- Miscellaneous cost
Permits and Insurance in Building Construction
Before starting a building construction, the owner must confirm that one has the required permits taken to start out the development. In cities and states, permits and insurance can be obtained from a variety of sources. A construction work conducted without permits leads to project delay or project demolition or huge fines. Possessing insurance for the specified parties helps to save lots of the owner and therefore the contractor.
From here, the particular construction process starts. supported the location and building plan, necessary excavations, leveling, and filling are often undergone to organize the location. the required excavation for utilities, power, water, and sanitation lines, temporary storage facilities are prepared. Mostly the works needed to line up the utilities are prepared. this is often followed by an inspection from the govt officials. Inspections on structural, building codes, utilities, HVAC, electrical work, and other aspects are carried out at various phases. After the completion of the entire project, a final inspection is performed.
Foundation / Substructure Construction
Building structures are generally constructed on concrete foundations. supported the soil type and water level of the world, the inspiration chosen can vary. If necessary, soil testing is performed to see the bearing capacity. Shallow foundations are required for low-rise buildings. For high-rise buildings, a pile foundation is used. Once the inspiration is chosen, the soil is excavated to construct the inspiration. it’s performed supported the inspiration layout. Formworks are placed within the foundation trenches and reinforcement is placed to support the inspiration detailing design prepared within the drawing board. The reinforcement works performed by the contractor are periodically checked by the engineer responsible. The concrete mixture of the specified proportion is poured into formwork and is cured to make the finished foundation.
The superstructure is made once the substructure is complete. In most cases, a framed structure is built first, followed by brick walls. Adequate windows and exterior doors are placed supported the building plan. Other works coming under this section is:
- Construction of roofs or siding
- Installation of heating, ventilation, and air-con
- Providing adequate electric and water line connection lines.
- Provide insulation works as needed to guard against lighting
- Provision of waterproofing to the walls.
- Plastering and finishing the walls and surfaces
- Flooring works
- Exterior and Interior Painting
Once the project is complete, the contractor inspects the entire work one by one and makes a punch list. Those structural units or areas that weren’t constructed properly or are below the standard level are listed within the punch list. this is often later corrected by the contractor responsible.
Once the project is complete and handover to the owner, the contractor specifies a guaranty period. Within this era, any defects found within the building constructed must be fixed and replaced by the contractor responsible. The warranty for materials and appliances is obtained from manufacturers and suppliers.